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  • All 17
  • Aptenodytes
  • Pygoscelis
  • Spheniscus
  • Eudyptes
  • Eudyptula
  • Megadyptes


Nowadays 17 species of penguins exist, subdivided in 6 groups or genus (genera):
Some scientists mention the white-flippered little penguin as an 18th species, but most of them consider it as a subspecies of the little penguin.
  • Aptenodytes : meaning flightless divers, or large penguins

    • Emperor penguin
    • King penguin

  • Pygoscelis : or brush-tailed penguins.

    • Adélie penguin
    • Chinstrap penguin
    • Gentoo penguin

  • Eudyptes :(beautiful diver) or crested penguins.

    • Erect-crested penguin
    • Snares crested penguin
    • Fiordland penguin
    • Rockhopper
    • Macaroni penguin
    • Royal penguin

  • Spheniscus : wigtailed or banded penguins.

    • African or blackfoot penguin
    • Humboldt penguin
    • Magellanic penguin
    • Galápagos penguin

  • Megadyptes : large diver, includes only the yellow-eyed penguin

    • Yellow-eyed penguin

  • Eudyptula : little beautiful diver or little penguins

    • Fairy or little blue penguin

Genus Aptenodytes (flightless diver): large penguins

The largest and most colourful penguins,
with an orange/yellow patch on cheek and breast.
emperor penguin (Photo Kevin Schafer)
© Kevin Schafer
Emperor penguins are one of the two species which only breed on the fast ice all around the Antarctic. They never set foot on dry mainland. Only the male penguins hatch out the egg on their feet during the harsh Antarctic winter (June-Sept).
Laying : May, incubation : 62 till 64 days.
Emperor penguins are rarely found in captivity unless in the Sea World Parks in San Diego and Ohio.
Photo, used with permission, by Kevin Schafer.
  • Scientific name : Aptenodytes forsteri
  • Height : approx. 115 cm
  • Weight : approx. 27 till 41 kg
  • Habitat : ice around Antarctica, southern Antarctic Peninsula
  • Population : estimated on 170 000 pairs
  • Status : stable
koningspinguin King penguins are found on many sub-Antarctic islands.
Many zoos keep them, but one of the best known is Edinburgh Zoo in Scotland, where they take a walk through the zoo almost every day. In München and Hamburg (Germany) too, but only during cold winters, under 10°C.
  • Scientific name : Aptenodytes patagonicus
  • Height : approx. 94 cm
  • Weight : approx. 13,5 till 16 kg
  • Habitat : Macquarie, Marion, Prince Edward, Kerguelen, Crozet, South Georgia, South Sandwich.
  • Population : estimated on 1 million pairs
  • Status : stable

Genus Pygoscelis (elbow): brush-tailed penguins

adelie
© Kevin Schafer
Adélie penguins are the second species which breed only in Antarctica. incubation : 35 days in October, November.
Photo, used with permission, by Kevin Schafer.
  • Scientific name : Pygoscelis adeliae
  • Height : approx. 73 cm
  • Weight : approx. 3,6 till 4,5 kg
  • Habitat : coast of Antarctica, South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Sandwich, Antarctic Peninsula.
  • Population : more than 2,5 million pairs
  • Status : stable
kinbandpinguin Chinstrap penguins breed on Antarctica and the sub-Antarctic islands around it. They are very noisy, and therefore sometimes called stonecrackers. They lay 2 eggs.
  • Scientific name : Pygocelis antarctica
  • Height : approx. 73 cm
  • Weight : approx. 4,5 kg
  • Habitat : South Shetlands, South Orkneys, South Sandwich, Antarctic Peninsula till 65°.
  • Population : 4 million pairs
  • Status : stable
ezelspinguin Gentoo penguins breed on the sub-Antarctic islands in the Southern Ocean. Easely recognized on the white head-phone like stripe over their head.
  • Scientific name : Pygoscelis papua
  • Height : approx. 76 cm
  • Weight : approx. 5,5 till 6,4 kg
  • Habitat : Heard and Macquarie Islands, Falklands, South Georgia, South Shetlands, South Orkneys, Prince Edward en Marion Island, Crozet and Kerguelen, South Sandwich, North Antarctic Peninsula till 65°.
  • Population : around 314.000 pairs
  • Status : near threatened (nt), 2008 IUCN

Genus Spheniscus or banded penguins

afrikaanse pinguin African penguins (blackfooted or jackass) live around the southern African and Namibian coast. They are threatened by oil spills of passing tankships. In Boulders Beach , you can stay in a guesthouse, from your bed out looking and listening at African penguins.
In Münster (GE), during summer months african penguins take a walk through the zoo and you can even caress them, if you dare. (see photogallery)
  • Scientific name : Spheniscus demersus
  • Height : approx. 60 cm
  • Weight : approx. 3 kg
  • Habitat : south and southwest Africa: Namibia, South Africa, Bird Island, Algoa Bay
  • Population : 58 600 pairs
  • Status : vulnerable, population declining, IUCN 2008
humboldt Humboldt penguins live on the coast of South America in Peru en Chili. It is one of the most vulnerable penguin species. You can find them in many zoos, such as in Cologne (GE) (see photogallery)
  • Scientific name : Spheniscus humboldti
  • Height : approx. 60 cm
  • Weight : approx. 4 kg
  • Habitat : Peruvian and Chilean coast islands
  • Population : 3 300 till 12000 vogels
  • Status : vulnerable, population declining, 2008 IUCN
magelhaen Magellanic penguins breed on the east and southern coasts of South America, on some off shore islands and in the Falklands.
  • Scientific name : Spheniscus magellanicus
  • Height : approx. 65 cm
  • Weight : approx. 4 à 6 kg
  • Habitat : south Chili, Patagonia (Argentina), Tiera del Fuego and Falklands.
  • Population : 1,3 million pairs
  • Status : near threatened, population declining, 2008 IUCN
Galápagos pinguin (12 K)
© i-bird.com
Galápagos penguins: They are the most northern species, living in South America near the equator.
Photo, used with permission, by i-bird.com.
  • Scientific name : Spheniscus mendiculus
  • Height : approx. 40 till 45 cm
  • Weight : approx. 2,5 kg
  • Habitat : Isabela and Fernandina Islands in the Galápagos (for the coast of Ecuador)
  • Population : 800 pairs and declining
  • Status : ENDANGERED, (2008 IUCN Red List)

Genus Eudyptes (beautiful diver): crested penguins

Grote kuif penguin Erect-crested penguins live on several sub-Antarctic islands southern of New Zealand.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes sclateri
  • Height : approx. 57 cm
  • Weight : approx. 4,5 till 6 kg
  • Habitat : Antipodes and Bounty Islands
  • Population : estimated on 57.000 pairs
  • Status : ENDANGERED and population declining, (2008 IUCN Red List)
Snares kuif penguin Snares penguins live only on the Snares Islands, about 300 miles southern of New Zealand. It is a protected nature reserve, closed for tourism and visitors.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes robustus
  • Height : approx. 47 cm
  • Weight : approx. 3 till 4 kg
  • Habitat : Snares Island
  • Population : 23 250 pairs?
  • Status : vulnerable, population stable, IUCN
dikbek- of fjordland penguin
© Dave Houston
Fiordland penguins breed in the rainforests on the south west coast of New Zealand´s South Island and on Stewart Eiland (southern of New Zealand). Their survival is threatened by the increasing presence of people in the last wilderness, while dogs and other introduced animals chase them.
Photo, used with permission, by Dave Houston.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
  • Height : approx. 47 cm
  • Weight : approx. 3 till 4,5 kg
  • Habitat : south west New Zealand, Stewart Island.
  • Population : 3000 breeding pairs
  • Status : vulnerable, population declining, IUCN
rotsspringer Rockhoppers are probably the most common widespread crested penguins. They lay 2 eggs, but only hatch out just one.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes chrysocome
  • Height : approx. 45 till 50 cm
  • Weight : approx. 2,3 till 5 kg
  • Habitat : Tristan groep, New Amsterdam, St Paul, Heard, Macquarie, Staten, Falklands, Marion, Kerguelen, Crozet, Antipodes, Campbell, Auklands, Bounty, Tiera del Fuego.
  • Population : 3,6 million pairs
  • Status : Southern sub-species: vulnerable, population declining, IUCN
    Northern sub-species (E. c. moseleyi): ENDANGERED, IUCN Red List 2008
macaroni Macaroni penguins are the largest of the crested penguins. They breed on sub-Antarctic islands southern of Africa and America. They lay 2 eggs, but only hatch out just one. Incubation : 35 à 37 days.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes chrysolophus
  • Height : approx. 60 till 65 cm
  • Weight : approx. 4,5 till 6,5 kg
  • Habitat : Kerguelen, Crozet, Falklands, Prince Edward and Marion, Heard, South Shetlands, South Georgia, South Sandwich, Bouvet, Chili.
  • Population : estimated 12 000 000 pairs
  • Status : vulnerable, population strongly declining, IUCN
schlegel of royalpinguin
© Kevin Schafer
Royal penguins sometimes are subscribed as a sub-species of the macaroni but with a white chin. They are only found on Macquarie Island, southern of New Zealand/Australia.
As far as I know, they can't be found in a zoo.
Photo, used with permission, by Kevin Schafer.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptes schlegeli
  • Height : approx. 60 cm
  • Weight : approx. 5 till 7 kg
  • Habitat : Macquarie Island
  • Population : 850 000 pairs
  • Status : vulnerable, population stable, 2008 IUCN

Genus Eudyptula (little beautiful diver): little blue penguins

dwergpinguin Little blue penguins (Fairy or Kororaa) live on the southcoast of Australia and Tasmania, in New Zealand and many islands around it. Chatham Islands and Cook Strait penguins belong to this species too.
Only one zoo in Europe has this species: in Cologne (Germany) (see photogallery)
  • Scientific name : Eudyptula minor
  • Height : approx. 30 à 40 cm
  • Weight : approx. 1 kg
  • Habitat : northern New Zealand, southern Australia.
  • Population : less than 500 000 pairs?
  • Status : not in danger
White flippered little penguin: some describe it as an 18th species, but mostly they are considered as a subspecies of the little blue penguin.
  • Scientific name : Eudyptula albosignata
  • Habitat : New Zealand South Island, Banks Peninsula.

Genus Megadyptes (big diver): yellow-eyed penguin

geeloog  penguin
© Rutger Geerling
Yellow-eyed penguins (Hoiho) live on New Zealand´s South Island and on several sub-Antarctic Island, southern of New Zealand. On the mainland of New Zealand they are rarely found (very shy) and endangered.
They founded a special Yellow-eyed Penguin Trust for conservation of their habitat and species.
Dave Houston, ranger, has an informative site about yellow-eyed penguins in New Zealand.
Photo, used with permission, by Rutger Geerling.
  • Scientific name : Megadyptes antipodes
  • Height : approx. 55 à 65 cm
  • Weight : approx. 5,5 kg
  • Habitat : south east New Zealand, Stewart Island, Auckland and Campbell Islands
  • Population : 1 500 pairs
  • Status : ENDANGERED, (IUCN Red List 2008)
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